The Psychology of Education | Education

On the need for an individualistic educational psychology emphasizing on the central role of the learnerEducation and psychology are related in more than just one way and the psychology of education could be related to educational principles in psychology or how education as a discipline is taught within psychology as a subject and how these two disciplines merge. This is primarily the focus of educational psychology which studies how human learning occurs, what ways of teaching are most effective, what different methods should be used to teach gifted or disabled children and how principles of psychology could help in the study of schools as social systems.Psychological education would be completely focused on learning methods as structured or imparted according to psychological and individual needs of the students. Education would differ according to culture, values, attitudes, social systems, mindset and all these factors are important in the study of education in psychology.Educational psychology is the application of psychological objectives within educational systems and psychological education as I distinguish here is application of educational objectives in psychological processes. The first focus of using psychology in education is more general and the second approach of using education in psychology is more individualistic. However as far as present study of educational approach to psychology is concerned, there is no difference between individualistic educational psychology and general educational psychology and all interrelationships between psychology and education are considered within the broad discipline of educational psychology.However a distinction between the more general educational psychology and more specific psychological or individualistic education could help in understanding the nuances of individualistic study and give a subjective dimension to the study of psychology in education. This could also help in making learning systems more student based and according to the needs of culture, society, individual or personal factors. This sort of study with a focus on personal/psychological aspects of learning is not just about social objectives and objectives within educational systems but also about personal goals and objectives and the psychological processes involved in learning. There has to be a clearer demarcation between education in psychology as a general study and individualistic education in psychology as a more specific and subjective discipline.As of now educational psychology encompasses a wide range of issues and topics including the use of technology and its relation to psychology, learning techniques and instructional design. It also considers the social, cognitive, behavioural dimensions of learning but it would be necessary to make education more personal and individualistic through a special branch with a psychological focus on education so that individual needs are considered. There could be two ways in which this branch of knowledge could evolve – either by strengthening psychological education or individualistic approach to the psychology of education or by having two distinct branches of general educational psychology and individualistic educational psychology.As in client centered approach to psychology, a psychology of education should also include further research that would highlight the need for individualistic dimensions in learning. Learning psychology is the use of psychological theories for example that of Jean Piaget and Kohler in the study of learning techniques, especially among children. I have already discussed Piaget but briefly Piaget’s theory higlights different stages of learning in children and Kohler suggested that learning occurs by sudden comprehension or understanding, however I will not go further into learning theories here. Whereas the focus of educational psychology is on learning techniques per se and the role of the learner is considered only secondary, a branch of individualistic psychology in education could help in emphasizing the role of the learner considering not just their disabilities or giftedness but also their personality patterns. This focus on personality patterns brings out the central role of understanding psychology in educational systems.Educational psychology studies both the personal approaches to education as in giftedness, disability, learning theories applied to children and adults, and the more general objective approaches to learning as the role of schools as social or cultural systems.The psychology of education could include the following branches:General Educational Psychology 1. Learning Systems – As studied from individualistic learning perspectives and generalized learning perspectives, a discussion of the different theories, practices and systems or techniques of learning is an integral part of educational psychology and especially central to general educational psychology.2. Social Systems – The use of education in social, cultural and economic systems could be considered within the psychological context and this relates to the role of education in society.Individualistic Educational Psychology 1. Learning Systems – Learning techniques and systems or methods will have to be in accordance with the needs of the children or adult participants and according to skills of the teachers. Needs vary according to personal traits and abilities and individual needs will have to be considered during the learning process.2. Social Systems – Individual learning psychology will have to be studied according to specific social and cultural backgrounds of the learners and thus a more subjective study of learning approaches and centralized role of the individual in the learning process considering their social, cultural or intellectual background will have to be considered.

Lease Option Real Estate Investing: Advantages and Disadvantages | Real estate

One creative way to get started investing in real estate is to use a lease option. The biggest advantage of using lease options to invest in real estate is –control. This method of investing, basically gives the investor the right to possess — be in control of — and profit from a property without owning it.A real estate lease option contract is a combination of two documents.The lease part of the contract is where the owner agrees to let you lease their property, while you pay them rent for a stated period of time. During the lease period, the owner can not raise the rent, rent it to anyone else, or sell the property to anyone else.The option part of the contract represents the right you purchased to buy the property in the future, for a specific price. If you decide to exercise your option to buy, the owner has to sell it to you at the negotiated price. The option part of the contract obligates the seller to sell to you during the option period — but it does not obligate you to buy. You are only obligated to make rental payments as agreed during the lease period.When the lease option contract is written and structured properly, it can provide tremendous benefits and advantages to the investor. If the lease option includes the “right to sub-lease”, the investor can generate a positive cash flow by renting the property to a tenant for the duration of his lease, or lease option the property to a tenant-buyer for positive cash flow and future profits. If the lease option includes a “right of assignment” the investor could assign the contract to another buyer for a quick profit.Lease option real estate investing, is a flexible, low risk, highly leveraged method of investing that can be implemented with little to no money.High LeverageIt is highly leveraged because you are able to gain control of a property and profit from it now–even though you don’t own it yet. The fact that you don’t own it, also limits your personal liability and personal responsibility. Only if you decide to purchase the property by exercising your “option to buy”, would you take title to the property.Little to no moneyThe real estate investor’s cost to implement a lease option contract with the owner requires little to no money out of pocket, because it is entirely negotiable between investor and owner. Also, there are a variety of ways the option fee can be structured. It can be structured on an installment plan, balloon payment or other agreeable arrangement between both parties. The option fee can even be as little as $1.00.In order to secure the property for purchase at a later date, tenant-buyers typically pay a non-refundable option fee of approximately 2%-5% of the negotiated future purchase price to the seller. Depending on how the lease option agreement is written and structured, the investor could possibly use the tenant-buyer’s option fee money to pay any option fee owed to the owner.FlexibleLease option real estate investing is a flexible method of investing because the terms of the agreement, like payment amounts, payment dates, installments, interest rate, interest only payment, balloon payments, purchase price and other terms are all negotiated between seller and buyer. Responsibilities of both parties are also negotiable. For instance, if the investor doesn’t want to act in the capacity of a landlord, he could specify in the lease option agreement that tenant-buyer will be responsible for all minor maintenance and repairs and the original seller will remain responsible for any major repairs.Financially Low RiskIt is low risk financially, because if the property fails to go up enough in value to make a profit, you have the purchased the right to change your mind and let the “option to buy” expire. Even if your tenant-buyer decides not to buy the property, you have profited by a positive monthly cash flow from the tenant-buyer’s rent payments, and upfront non-refundable option fee.Let’s look at an example of a lease with option to buy structured in a way that the investor profits in 3 separate phases of the investment.Profit #1: non-refundable option feeFuture sales price negotiated with the current owner is $125,000 with an option fee of 2% of the sales price. Option Fee you owe the owner is $2,500. The future sales price you set for your tenant-buyer is $155,000 and the option fee is 4% of the sales price. Option fee the tenant-buyer owes you is $6,200. You collect $6,200 from tenant-buyer and pay $2,500 to the owner and your profit = $3,700Profit #2: monthly cash flow from rental paymentsThe Monthly rental payment you negotiated with the owner is $1,000. You set the monthly payment at $1,250 per month for your tenant-buyer. Each month you collect $1,250 from your tenant-buyer and pay the owner $1,000 each month. Your profit is $250 monthly positive cash flow during the lease period.Profit #3: is set up when the lease option contract is initially writtenThe third profit is the difference in the negotiated future purchase price with the owner, and the future purchase price set for your tenant-buyer. Let’s say the property goes up in value to appraise for at least $155,000. Your tenant-buyer decides to exercise their option to buy. You buy the property from the owner at $125,000 and then sell it to your tenant-buyer for $155,000. $155,000 – the $125,000 you pay to the owner = $30,000 profit.Of course the key to making lease option real estate investing work, is finding motivated sellers and buyers. Finding these motivated sellers and buyers shouldn’t be difficult. The continuing down turn in the real estate market, has created a large number of sellers who can’t sell their property and buyers who can’t get financing to buy. The seller could possibly get a fair offer to be paid in the future, by selling their property to a real estate investor on a lease option basis. A potential tenant-buyer could obtain home ownership, without having to qualify through traditional home loan guidelines.One disadvantage of lease option real estate investing, involves the tenant or tenant-buyer possibly defaulting on monthly rental payments. This would make it necessary for the investor to come up with money out of pocket to pay the owner, and possibly have to proceed with eviction process. However, there are certain provisions that can made, and also various “contract clauses”, that can be included in the lease option agreement, to deter buyers from defaulting on payments.If the investor fails to do “due diligence” before entering into a lease option agreement, he could end up with a property that is unmarketable. There could be a number of liens on it, issues involving ownership of the property or it might be in foreclosure. By diligently performing research before entering into a lease option agreement, the investor can avoid these mistakes. A few things the investor could do is– perform background and credit checks on both the seller and buyer, search public records in reference to ownership and property status, or do a title search.Despite the few disadvantages, lease option real estate investing continues to be an excellent way to invest in real estate with little to no money and low financial risks. It also remains to be an excellent way to gain control of a property you don’t own, to generate cash flow now, and possible future profits on flexible terms.Bottom line– you don’t have to miss out on the lucrative profits being made by investors in today’s real estate marketThe more you understand creative real estate investing strategies, and apply them now, the more profits you will make in today’s real estate market. Don’t put off getting the real estate investing education you need — to succeed in today’s real estate market.Learn these things and more:
Creative investing strategies and concepts for Lease option real estate investing, foreclosure investing, and wholesaling and flipping real estate.
How to structure every deal right so you make more on each deal and eliminate your risk.
What needs to be included in your real estate contracts now– to safely avoid issues that could cost you thousands!
The most powerful legal clauses you can use to completely eliminate your risk in all your offers.
The step by step approach to invest in real estate with minimal risk.
How and where to research properties effectively to save hundreds of hours in time.
The best ways to creatively finance your investment properties.
How to know the true market value of properties so you never overpay again.
How to control properties with no money, credit or income verifications so you can make a lot more.

Hot Trend For Christmas 2009 – Board Games | Board Games

One of the hot trends for Christmas toy shopping this year may be the resurgence of the board game. That’s right, sales of many old prepong favorites such as Monopoly, Chutes and Ladders, and Operation are increasing, while sales of video gaming systems such as PlayStation are dropping. Spurred by a combination of recessionary belt-tightening by shoppers, and a tendency to wax nostalgic during hard times, board game sales have increased 5% since May 2008 while toy sales in general have decreased 2%, with electronic games sales off by 12%.Toy manufactures are responding to this new trend by updating their familiar games to have a more current feel. For example, the depression era game Monopoly has replaced it’s familiar shoe playing piece with a laptop. You can also purchase property using the new credit card machine. In place of removing a wishbone in the game Operation, you can now remove a cell phone finger, and the board game Clue has new characters, including a dot-com billionaire.Marketing of board games is also being updated. Hasbro , the manufacturer of games such as Operation, Candy Land, and Scrabble has begun to promote “family game night” in response to the growing board game trend. Their Website features “games of the month” along with suggestions on how to host your own “game night”.Technology has recently made its debut into the board game world. with a game called Scene It?. This game uses a DVD to display movie and television clips along with the traditional playing board to engage players in this fun trivia-style game.So, what are going to be the hot board games for Christmas 2009?A top seller in many stores continues to be the strategy game Settlers of Catan. In this game, geared for ages 10 and above, the players battle to collect resources, building settlements and cities that ultimately determine the winner.Another top seller this year is Quiddler, a quick paced word lovers game in which players attempt to create words from dealt cards. Like Scrabble players try to use high point letters to get the highest score. Points are also given for most words, so even small words can help you win.What serious board-gamers are picking as their top game overall is Puerto Rico. If your looking for a super fun strategy game that can teach your kids lessons in economics and commerce, this is it. Recommended for ages 12 and above, players of this game take on the roles of various plantation owners around the 1800′s. The winner is determined by who positions themselves best to deliver their product across the sea to Europe.With a combination of gambling and trivia, Wits & Wagers may again be top seller for 2009. In this fast paced, easy to learn game, players not only try to answer fun, and sometimes crazy questions, but also bet on the accuracy of other players answers to crown a winner.If you’re looking for a game which can be as enjoyable for a five year old as well as an adult you have to try Blokus Classics Game by Mattel. In this strategy game which lasts about 30 minutes, you place colorful pieces on the board in an attempt to be first to play all your pieces before your opponents. Blokus is a fast game, easy to learn and fun for both adults and children.With the economy still in the dumps, and many board games selling for under $20.00, they are sure to be a popular present found under the Christmas tree this year. So pick up one while there’s still a good supply on store shelves. You’ll find out like many others already know. You forgot how much fun playing a board game with your family and friends can be.